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    您现在的位置:31省市学位英语网>>山东>>备考经验
山东成人学位英语复习资料重点提示:时态
2013-01-04 10:19     来源:31省市学位英语网  [ ]

(一)时态、语态

1. 时态(Tense)是表示行为、动作和状态在各种时间条件下的动词形式。因此,当我们说时态结构的时候,指的是相应时态下的动词形式。
英语时态分为16种:一般现在、一般过去、一般将来、过去将来时,以及这四者的进行时、完成时和完成进行时

 

 

现在

过去

将来

过去将来

do(es)

did

shall/will do

should/would do

Is/am/are

doing

was/were doing

shall/will be

doing

should/would be doing

have/has

done

had done

shall/will have done

should/would have done

完成进行

have/has

been doing

had been doing

shall/will have

been doing

should/would have been doing

2. 一般现在时表示将来

1) 用于时间或条件状语从句中表示将来

Unless you get rid of smoking, you will not recover from your illness.

We will meet you at the airport when you arrive.

2) see (to it)/ make sure/make certain+ that (确保,保证)分句中,常用一般现在时表示将来See that you finish the assignment on time.

3.三种附加将来时态表达形式的区别

1 “be going to do”:若主语是人,表示说话人的意图和打算;或预报,有迹象即将发生的事。Listen to the loud crash of thunder. It’s going to rain.

2) “be to +动词原形:按计划,安排即将发生的动作;或要求,命令等。

You are not to stay too late outside.

3) “be about to do”:立刻,以上要做的动作。

He was about to be transferred to another part of the province.

4.一般不采用进行时态的动词

表示心理状态,情态,感官,所有关系及特征等状态动词,一般不用进行时态,如smelltaste, sound, notice, see, hear, feel; hate, like, love; believe, think (以为), understand, mind, agree, want, hope; seem, look, appear; possess, contain, belong, have等。

The properties belong to my aunt now.

I feel my heart beating violently now.

5.完成时(现在完成时,过去完成时,将来完成时)

现在完成时态作基本用法外,注意以下几种特殊之处:

1)由“until (till/ up to) now, up to the present, so far, in (for/ over/ during ) the past (last/ recent) few (several /two) months (days/ years)”等作状语的句型中,谓语动词用现在完成时。

We have seen each other three times in the past three weeks.

So far we have only discussed the first five chapters.

2) 在“It is (has been)since”结构句中,常用完成时,也可用一般时

It is (has been) a long time since I last came to the town.

3) 在“This is (It is) the first (second,) time that…”句型中,常用现在完成时

It is the second time he has been not with her alone.

过去完成时除基本用法外,注意以下问题

1expect, hope, intend, plan, mean, suppose, think (想,打算) want 等词用于过去完成时可表示“未曾实现的希望,打算或意图”。

I had meant to go on Monday but have stayed on.

We had hoped to cross the dark forest in the foggy weather but failed.

2)在“no sooner than, hardlywhen, scarelywhen, barely when”等句型中主句谓语常用过去完成时,从句谓语常用一般过去时。

No sooner had he reached home than the telephone rang.

He had hardly reached there when it began to snow.

关于将来完成时

若句中的时间状语为“by the end of the year, month…;by this time”等,应用钭来完成时。

I shall have finished reading the book by the end of the week.

By this time tomorrow they will have repaired the machine.

6.完成进行时资料来源:31省市学位英语网www.31xuewei.com

完成进行时强调动作未间断地持续进行,常与表示一段时间的状语连用,如for days/months/years等;一般只适用于动作动词。

It has been raining for a week.

She has been playing the music of Mozart and Beethoven for two hours.

7.时态呼应

1)若主句谓语和时间/条件状语从句谓语均在将来发生,主句动词用将来时态,从句动词则用一般时态表示将来的动作。资料来源:31省市学位英语网www.31xuewei.com

Convection will go on until all parts of the fluid are of the same temperature.

Unless you get rid of such bad habits as smoking and drinking, you will not recover from your illness.

2)如果名词性从句表示客观事实或活动,通常用一般现在时态,不受主句时态的影响。

The professor said that Persian belongs to the Indo-European group of languages.

3)在“no soonerthan, hardlywhen, scarcelywhen, barelywhen”等句型中主句谓语常用过去完成时,从句谓语常用一般过去时。

No sooner had she got the sad news than she cried.

 

语态应当注意的问题:

1.以下及物动词通常不能用于被动语态

beg         contain          cost        equal             fail(不及格)          fit           have

hold (容纳)           lack        possess          resemble

He possessed great wealth. ()         Great wealth was possessed by him.()

He resembles his father closely.

2.主动结构表示被动含义的动词资料来源:31省市学位英语网www.31xuewei.com

英语中有些动词,如cook, cut (切起来)drive(开起来),run(开起来),sell(卖得),wash(洗起来),wear(戴起来)write(写起来)等常用主动语态表示被动意义。

The noodles are still cooking.                         The shop opens at 6 every day.

The sentence reads oddly.

3Deserve, need, require, want, be worth后接动名词的主动形式表示被动含义

The broken bicycle needs repairing.

This problem deserves thinking about.

4.使役动词和感官动词的被动形式

使役动词和have, let, make和感官动词hear, see, notice, feel, observe, listen to 等在主动语态中,后接省略to的不定式,但变为被动语态时,必须将to补充出来。

I saw the girl cross the street.           The girl was seen to cross the street.

5.非谓语动词的被动语态(详见非谓语动词)

I don’t remember having ever been given such a book.

They will not allow such thing to be done.

You will find this matter being talked about all over the town.

 

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