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    您现在的位置:31省市学位英语网>>山东>>备考经验
山东成人学位英语复习资料重点提示:非谓语动词
2013-01-04 10:21     来源:31省市学位英语网  [ ]

不定式应注意的问题:

1、关于不定式的作用

1)不定式作主语时,若主语较长而谓语较短,常以作句首形式而不定式放在句末

It’s illegal to drive without a license.

It is human to want something better.

2)在think, consider, believe, find, know, declare, guess, prove, suppose, imagine等词后面常接“to+be+形容词/名词/反身代词结构”作宾补,但to be常可省略

All her friends supposed her (to be)dead.

We sometimes imagine a desert island (to be) a sort of paradise, where sun always shines.

3)在序数词,形容词/副词的最高级,和the last, the only后,常用不定式作定语

She was the only one to survive the crash.

He loves parties; he is always the first to come and last to leave.

4介词+which+不定式可作定语,which代替前面的中心词

You have a number of topics from which to choose.

She had no time left in which to pack her things.

5连接词what/which/when/where/who/why/how+不定式可作主语,宾语,宾补,表语等。

What to do next remains undecided.

Our difficulty is how to get enough food.

He discovered how to open the safe.

2、关于不定式的时态

1)一般式to do 表示的动作在谓语动词表示的动作之后发表;

进行式to be doing可表示该动作正在发生,或与谓语动作同时进行;

完成式to have done表示的动作在谓语动作表示的动作之前发生。

They all agreed to give up this plan.

I happened to be standing next to him when he collapsed.

He pretended not to have seen me.

2expect, hope, intend, mean, plan, suppose, think, want, wish等词的过去式完成时态+不定式的一般形式;would/should like +不定式的完成时态表示过去未曾实现的愿望,打算或意图。

I had intended to call on to you ,but was prevented from doing so.

He would like to have attended the meeting, but he was ill.

3、关于不定式的语态

1)当不定式与其修饰的词之间有动宾关系,并且与句中主//表语有逻辑上的主谓关系时,用主动形式表示被动含义。

We have many difficulties to overcome.

I’ll show you the right path to take.

2)当不定式作表语/宾补形容词的状语,又与句中的主语或宾语有逻辑上动宾关系时,用主动形式表示被动含义

Some books are interesting to read, but boring to learn.

They found the subject hard to understand

3)在there be 句型中修饰的主语的不定式常用主动形式

There is nothing to see.

There are a lot of letters to answer this night.

4、关于不定式的逻辑主语

1)不定式的逻辑主语/复合不定式常用 “for+名词/代词宾格+不定式结构

It is difficult for me to drive in the mountains.

It is a great honor for us to be present at the party.

2)在表示人物性格特征或感情色彩的形容词后,常用of引出不定式的逻辑主语,如:absurd(荒唐的),brave, careful, careless, clever, considerate, courageous, cruel, foolish, generous, good(友善),graceful, honest, kind, nice, polite, right, rude, silly, stupid, thoughtful, wicked (邪恶的),wise, wrong, generous, unwise.

It was unwise of him to make that silly remark.

It was very thoughtful of her to come to see me when I was ill.

5、不定式省略to的情况资料来源:31省市学位英语网www.31xuewei.com

1)主动语态中,以下表达后接省略to的不定式:look at, notice, see, watch, observe, hear, listen to feel, have, make, let, cannot but, do nothing/anything but, had better, had best, would rather(……than), would sooner, would just as soon, might as well

I would sooner resign than work under that boss.

You’d better remain where you are.

2)在why why not 后常接省to的不定式构成问句

Why worry about such trifles?

Why not wait for a couple of days?

3)在介词butexcept前若有实义动词do的各种形式,后接省略to的不定式

We had nothing to do but cancel the meeting

I don’t have any choice but/except to give up the plan.

4)在下列固定搭配中常用省略to的不定式:leave/let go(放开),let slip(失言,错过),make do(凑合),make believe (假装),haer say /tell(听说)

He made believe he was innocent.

Don’t let slip such a good opportunity to learn

Make that dog leave go my coat.

5)两个不定式结构由and, or , but, except, than 相连时,第二个不定式省略to

He hardly knew whether to laugh or cry.

It is easier to persuade people than force them

动名词应注意的问题

1、在关于动名词的作用

1)在 “it is no use/no good/worthwhile/useless/a waste of time”, “There is /was no (point) “have difficulty/trouble /fun/problem/a good time/a hard time等结构中续接动作须用动名词形式

It is no use complaining about it.

It is no good writing to him; he never answers letters.

There is no point arguing about it further.

2)以下动词/短语后以及所有的介词只接动名词作宾语:admit, advise, allow, anticpate, appreciate, advoid, consider(考虑),delay, deny, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forbid, forgive, imagine, mind(介意),miss, pardon, permit, postpone, practice, propose, resent, resist, risk, save, suggest, understand; can’t help, can’t stand/bear, feel like, attribute to (把……归因于), be opposed to, be used to, confess to (承认),contribute to (有助于),dedicate to (致力于,贡献给),devote to, lead to, look forward to, object to, take to, stick to

3)在remember, forget, regret, try, mean, stop, cease, go on, continue , finish 等词后接不定式和动名词意义不同

You must remember to post my letter.      I didn’t remember meeting this person before

I don’t mean to give up the plan.             Their final decision means refusing my ideas.

2、关于动名词的时态

一般式和完成式间的区别与上述不定式的相关态相同

They are all interested in climbing mountains.

I have no idea of their having done such a thing.

3、关于动名词的语态

在动词deserve, need, require, want, be worth 后,用动名词的主动形式表示被动含义

The watch needs cleaning (=The watch needs to be cleaned.)

This problem deservers discussing about. (=This problem deserves to be discussed)

分词应注意的问题:

1、现在分词和过去分词的差异

现在分词表示主动和进行;过去分词表示被动和完成

running water----boiled water                          dripping taps----fallen leaves

2、关于分词的作用

1)分词作表语:现在分词常常表示主动关系或特性,其主语或修饰的对象通常是物;过去分词表示被动关系或处于某种状态,其主语通常是人。资料来源:31省市学位英语网www.31xuewei.com

His argument is very convincing.

They were very excited at the news

2)非谓语动词作定语的差异;现在分词指正在进行的动作;过去分词指过去发生的动作;不定式指将来进行的动作。

The question being discussed is of great importance.

The question discussed is of great importance.

The question to be discussed tomorrow is of great importance.

3)分词作宾补:动词look at, notice, see, watch, hear, listen to, feel, make等既可接现在分词也可接动词不定式,区别是现在分词着重说明动作正在发生,不定式则着重说明动作的全过程。

I saw the boys climbing the wall.

I saw the boys climb the wall.

4)分词作状语资料来源:31省市学位英语网www.31xuewei.com

分词单独作状语时,其逻辑主动必须与主语的主语一致。

Not being used to the strong sun, I got a sunburn.

Considered as work of art, the building is rather disappointing.

有时为了强调,分词前可带连词when, while, if, though, as, as if ,unless 等一起作状语,以使句子的意思更清楚连贯。

Almost all English prepositions  when turned into  Chinese look like verbs.

Though tired he still continued reading

3、独立主格结构

1)分词作状语时,若其逻辑主语和谓语动词的主语不一致,则分词必须带有自己的主语。带主语的分词称为分词的独立主格结构。

He being absent, nothing could be done now.

Her shirt caught on a nail, she couldn’t move.

2)独立主格结构有时也可用 “with/without+名词/代词宾格+分词的结构表示

With the tree growing tall, we’ll get more shade.

They traveled a whole day, without any food eaten.

4、分词的时态

现在分词的一般形式表示的动作和谓语动词表示的动作同时发生;完成形式表示分词的动作发生在谓语动词之前。I saw two old men playing chess in the park.
Professor Li, having heard the weather forecast, took a raincoat with him.

 

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