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    您现在的位置:31省市学位英语网>>甘肃>>阅读理解
2015年甘肃自考学位英语考试资料:阅读理解
2015-08-14 17:23     来源:31省市学位英语网编辑整理  [ ]

     A rapid means of long-distance transportation became a necessity for the United States as settlement(新拓居地) spread ever farther westward. The early trains were impractical curiosities, and for a long time the railroad companies met with troublesome mechanical problems. The most serious ones were the construction of rails able to bear the load, and the development of a safe, effective stopping system. Once these were solved, the railroad was established as the best means of land transportation.By 1860 there were thousands of miles of railroads crossing the eastern mountain ranges and reaching westward to the Mississippi. There were also regional southern and western lines.
    The high point in railroad building came with the construction of the first transcontinental,system.In 1862 Congress authorized two western railroad companies to build lines from Nebraska westward and from California eastward to a meeting point, so as to complete a transcontinental crossing linking the Atlantic seaboard with the Pacific. The Government helped the railroads generously with money and land.Actural work on this project began four years later. The Central Pacific Company, starting from California, used Chinese labor,while the Union Pacific employed crews of Irish labourers. The two groups worked at remarkable speed, each trying to cover a greater distance than the other. In 1869 they met at a place called Promontory in what is now the state of Utah.Many visitors came there for the great occasion.There were joyous celebrations all over the country, with parades and the ringing of church bells to honor the great achievement.
    The railroad was very important in encouraging Westward Movement. It also helped build up industry and farming by moving raw materials and by distributing products rapidly to distant markets. In linking towns and people to one another it helped unify the United States.  

1.The major problems with America's railroad system in the mid 19th century lay in _______.  
lack of financial support for development
poor quality rails and unreliable stopping systems
limited railroad lines
lack of a transcontinental railroad
BestAnswer:B
详解:答案B。从第二句话开始写道:早期的火车是不实用的新奇玩意儿,很长一段时间铁路公司都遇到了麻烦的机械问题。最严重的是建造能承重的铁轨和开发安全有效的刹车系统。一旦这些解决了,铁路就成为陆上运输的最佳方式。由此可知,正确答案为B。
 

2.The building of the first transcontinental system ________.  
brought about a rapid growth of industry and farming in the west.
attracted many visitors to the construction sites
attracted labourers from Europe
encouraged people to travel all over the country
BestAnswer:A
详解:答案A。第二段的大致内容是:随着第一个横跨大陆铁路线的修建,铁路建设达到了高峰。西起California,东至Nebraska修建了一条横跨大陆的铁路线。1869年这条铁路线在Utah会合。第三段写道:这条铁路线在西进运动中起了很重要的作用。通过运送原材料和快速发送物品到遥远的市场,它促进了西部工农业的发展。所以正确答案是A.
 

3.The best title for this passage would be ________.  
Settlements Spread Westward
The Importance of Railroads in the American Economy
American Railroad History
The Coast-to-Coast Railroad: A Vital Link
BestAnswer:D
详解:答案D。第一段写道:当新拓居地向西进发的时候,一种快速的长途交通工具对美国来说成为必要。以下讲述了早期火车和铁路存在的问题。一旦这些问题解决之后,铁路就成为最好的陆上运输工具。到1860年美国已拥有几千里的铁路。第二段主要讲述第一个跨大陆铁路系统的修建。最后一段讲述这条铁路线对促进美国政治和经济所起的重要作用。综上所述,可知本篇第一段是引言段;第二段是发展段;第三段是结论段。根据第三段里的结论,不难选出本题的正确答案D。
 

4.The construction of the transcontinental railroad took ________.  
3 years
7 years
4 years
9 years
BestAnswer:A
详解:答案A。从第二段得知,1862年国会授权二个铁路公司修建跨大陆铁路。这个工程实际上是在四年之后才真正动工的,也就是在1866年才动工。1869年这条铁路会合。由此可知,正确答案是A项。
 

5.What most likely made people think about a transcontinental railroad?  
The possibility of government support for such a task.
The need to explore Utah.
The need to develop the railroad industry in the west.
The need to connect the east coast with the west.
BestAnswer:D
详解:答案D。从第二段得知,国会授权二个铁路公司修一条跨大陆铁路线,东起Nebraska向西修筑,西起California向东修筑,最后到达一个会合点,以此可以穿越大陆,把大西洋海岸和太平洋海岸连接起来。由此可知,修筑这条铁路是为了把东海岸和西海岸连接起来。所以,正确答案是D项。
 

 

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