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2015年北京成人学位英语考前辅导:阅读理解
2015-08-27 17:21     来源:31省市学位英语网编辑整理  [ ]

Let us look now at some examples. A department store's inputs include the land upon which the building is located, the labor of the employees, capital in the form of building, equipment and merchandise, and the management skills of the store managers. On a farm, the operation system is the transformation that occurs when a farmer's inputs (land, equipment, labor, etc.) are converted into such outputs as corn, wheat or milk. The exact form of the conversion process varies from industry to industry, but it is an economic phenomenon that exists in every industry. Economists refer to this transformation of resources into goods and services as the production function. For all operation systems, the general goal is to create some kind of value-added outputs that are worth more to consumers than just the sum of the individual inputs. To the consumers, the resulting products offer utility due to the form, the time, or the place of their availability from the conversion process.
    However, the process is subject to random fluctuations. Unplanned or uncontrollable influences may cause the actual output to differ from planned output. Random fluctuations can arise from external disruption (fire, floods or lightning, for example) or from internal problems inherent in the conversion process. Inherent variability of equipment, material imperfections, and human errors all affect output quality. In fact, random variations are the rule rather than the exception in production processes; therefore, reducing variation becomes a major management task.
    The function of the feedback is to provide information linkages. Without some feedback of information, management personnel cannot control operations because they don't know the results of their directions.  

1.According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?  
The transformation process of a department store from inputs into outputs is different from that of a farm.
The conversion process of a department store from inputs into outputs is the same as that of a farm.
The transformation process can be totally free from random fluctuation.
Random fluctuation is important to the conversion process.
BestAnswer:A
详解:A)。推理题。百货商店的从投入到输出的转化过程与农场的转化过程是不一样的。第一段第四句指出,“The exact form of the conversion process varies from industry to industry, but it is an economic phenomenon that exists in every industry”,即“生产资料的转化是每种产业都存在的经济现象,但其模式因产业不同而不尽相同。由此推断,B)与上述观点不同。根据第二段的观点,这种转化过程会发生任意波动(...the process is subject to random flutuations.);这种波动是生产过程的规律性而不是例外(In fact,random variations are the rule rather than the exception in production process.)。C),D)的观点不符合上文。
 

2.Which of the following will NOT result in random fluctuation?  
Unreliable equipment.
Cash input.
Management skills.
Earthquake.
BestAnswer:B
详解:B)。细节题。文章第二段介绍了使转化过程产生波动的一些因素,包括外部的破坏(external disruption )和内部转化过程固有的问题(internal problems inherent in the conversion process)。这些因素并不包括B)资金投入。


3.The main idea of the second paragraph is that ______.  
random fluctuation can be eliminated from the transformation process from inputs into outputs
the transformation process from inputs into outputs can not be free from random fluctuation
human errors are the sole causes for random fluctuation
the inherent problems in the transformation process are the most important for random fluctuation
BestAnswer:B
详解:B)。主旨题。第二段第一句“However, the process is subject to random fluctuations”(当然,这一过程会发生任意波动。)为该段主旨句。选项中只有B)与主旨句意义相近。


4.It can be inferred from the passage that random fluctuation ______.  
is good to the desired transformation
will affect the quality of the goods produced
can provide information for the managers as feedback
does not help to provide enough information for the managers
BestAnswer:B
详解:B)。推理题。任意的波动会影响产品的质量。第二段第四句指出,“Inherent variability of equipment, material imperfections, and human errors all affect output quality ”。选项中只有B)表达了此意。A)对理想的转化有益;C)能够向经理们提供反馈信息;D)不能向经理们提供足够的信息。


5.What is the passage mainly about?  
The random fluctuation.
The function of feedback.
The transformation process.
The investment in all forms in the production.
BestAnswer:C
详解:主旨题。根据对全文主题的分析,C)为正确答案。
 

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